All types of real estate, their economic component
Currently in Russia there is active development of the real estate market and an increasing number of our fellow citizens, enterprises and organizations involved in real estate transactions.
In the Russian Federation, as elsewhere in the world, real estate is the basis of personal existence citizens and serves as a base for economic activity and development of enterprises and organizations of all forms of ownership. So get acquainted with the types of properties that exist in Russia, and mamsha al saadiyat also with the birth and formation of legal concepts of real estate, I think, be not uninteresting.
Types of properties: excursion into history
Legal separation of property types, i.e., movable objects and real estate originated during the Roman Empire. Roman law used the classification of objects into movable and immovable types, applying the criterion of physical impossibility to move immovable things, primarily the earth and that it is inextricably linked. According to the laws of ancient Rome, movable objects could be freely moved in space without damage.Accordingly, the physical criterion of strong connections of the subject with the earth and his inability to move has predetermined the classification of the property first, in Roman law, and then throughout at the level of the fundamental state doctrine. Today real estate is the basis, without which the existence of any developed society and the state.
Types of real estate in Russia
The term "property" appeared in Russia in the 17th century, but still nowhere its exact legal definition. So according to the Civil code of the Russian Federation to immovable things (immovable property, real estate) include:
- isolated water bodies,
- perennial plantings,
- construction in progress,
everything that is connected with the earth, that is, objects whose movement without disproportionate damage to their purpose is impossible.Also, the types of real estate in Russia are subject to state registration air and sea vessels, inland vessels, space objects. In addition, the law to immovable things can be carried and other property.
For example, the entire enterprise as a property complex is also recognized as one of the types of real estate. According to the Civil code of the Russian Federation the company is considered not as a subject but as an object of civil rights. The company, in whole or in part, be the subject of sale, mortgage, lease and other transactions connected with establishment, changing and termination of rights in REM.
The economic essence of property types
Among the main elements of a market economy occupies a special place estate, which acts as the means of production - it can be:
- administrative, manufacturing, warehouse, commercial and other buildings and premises,
- the construction of the subject or object of consumption (land, houses, villas, apartments, garages).
The distinctive economic characteristics of real estate include the following:
- rare (no identical real estate),
- the cost of adjacent land, buildings,
- territorial characteristics (territorial changes of preferences can increase or decrease the value of the types property even without physical changes),
- purpose, which usually without significant cost may not be changed.
Unit types of real estate depending on the nature of the use and origin
From the foregoing, it is understood that the property is distributed in three main types: land, housing and non-residential premises. Depending on the nature of types of property are allocated to be used:
- for housing (houses, cottages, flats, villas),
- for commercial activities (hotels, office buildings, shops,etc.)
- for production purposes (warehouses, factories,etc.)
- for agricultural purposes (farms, orchards, vegetable gardens,etc.)
- for special purposes (schools, churches, hospitals, kindergartens, etc.).
Property types also vary according to their origin:
- created by nature without human labor,
- are the result of human labor,
- created by human, but associated with the natural basis so that the isolation function can't.
So, the estate includes the most valuable and universally significant assets. And these types of properties, like land and mineral resources have a huge economic and strategic importance for any state.
Property in any political system is subject to economic and state interests, and therefore for this category of property is mandatory state registration of rights to it, yas acres which allows to identify the object and subject of law, because the relationship between the property and the rights it invisible, and the property transfer by the physical movement impossible.
The definition of the major types of real estate as in other countries, and in Russia, has major differences and is basically the same. The distinctive features of the real estate in the world, is its inextricable link with the earth. Out of touch with the land types of properties lose their regular assignment.
Oddly enough, the property law also include ships and aircraft and space objects such as satellites. This is due to the complex registration procedure for such equipment. But the special trees from nurseries and homes, intended for demolition, the real estate is not.
But few of us are faced with the need to buy or rent a satellite. So for most people, real estate is land, housing and non-residential premises.
Functions, origin, willingness
The first classification distinguishes property according to its characteristics. According to her, the property varies according to the functions, origin and ready for use.
On a functional purpose property is divided into land plots, natural systems (parks, gardens), homes, buildings designed for commercial purposes (offices, shopping centers, hotels), private residential buildings (villas, cottages, country houses with land plots), as well as industrial facilities (factories, car parks, warehouses).
Origin includes such property types as tracts of land, plots, housing complexes, apartment buildings, apartments and rooms in apartment buildings, individual houses, complexes, office buildings and commercial buildings.
And in readiness for operation, there are three types of objects: ready, in need of renovation and under construction.
Classification of the new standard of the Russian society of appraisers easier. She distinguishes between two kinds of real estate – specialized and non-specialized.
The first type of real estate includes objects, which because of their design features are very limited – for example, Church, school, pump station or boiler room. Such buildings rarely offered for sale, as they can be used only at the original destination.
The second group includes all other objects that you can use for various purposes. They are in constant demand on the open market.
Classes business centers
Finally, there is the third system we have called "Western" and are intended for classification of commercial buildings. It divides the estate into three classes – "A", "b" and "C".
Objects of class "A"
It's all prestigious business centers, regardless of the destination. This category includes both retail space and the offices and factory halls, factories, hospitals and warehouses. They all have different quality of finish and engineering communications, and also modern layout.
The Class "B"
Includes facilities intended for investment, ie rent. They are not as prestigious as the class "A", they may be missing some elements of care, such as air conditioning or Parking.
This so-called "excess property" – land with buildings or vacant parcels that are not needed for business. In our country, these objects can be considered as the premises are leased from various research institutes and production complexes.
At first glance, all these systems easy to get confused. But the existence of different classifications of real estate – it is rather a plus. They all contribute to the study of the real estate market and facilitate the development of adequate methods of property evaluation.The text size exceeds the maximum